Morphological Description of Noun Formation Process: Case of Suffixation and Prefixation in Iguta Language

Mohammed Ahmad Ado, Siti Jamila Bidin

Abstract


This paper dwells on a concise morphological description of Noun formation process involved in Iguta language (a minority endangered language in the north central, Nigeria). To this end, the paper explores the suffixation and prefixation processes involved in the formation of nouns of Iguta language. Ado’s (2017) 455 Iguta wordlists was employed as secondary data and was qualitatively used as instrument for the analyses in this paper. Ado’s 455 Iguta wordlists is primarily based on the standard dialect (i.e., Andirgiza) spoken by its native speakers in five selected towns in Jos North local government of the Plateau state, Nigeria. Hand analysis strategy and a thematic analytical process were used in developing insights on the language data during the analysis. The findings revealed ‘-char, -di and –e’ morphs as suffixes to inflect while  ‘t-, ti-, ha-, a-, an-, m-, i-, ma-, si-, ndu-, s-, tu-, tun-, tumu- morphs as  prefixes to either inflect or derive nouns. It is also observed that most singular nouns in Iguta are inflected to produce the plural forms using ti- or tu- prefixes especially when the pattern of the singular words begin with a vowel morpheme or phoneme. In accordance with the findings, it is suggested that prefixes and suffixes are part of the affixation process used in noun formation of Iguta language. In conclusion, the study has contributed in descriptive linguistics in terms inflectional or derivational suffixation and prefixation process used to build nouns in Iguta language. This paper may assist professional teachers and linguists in understanding the suffixations and prefixations existing in Iguta language.


Keywords


Morphology, Noun formation, prefixation, suffixation, Iguta language.

Full Text:

PDF

References


Abubakar, A. (2000). An introductory Hausa morphology, Maiduguri: Department of Languages and Linguistics. Faculty of Arts, University of Maiduguri Desktop Publishing.

Ado, A. M., Bidin, S.J. (2017). Developing documentation of an endangered language: A case study of Iguta wordlist: European Academic Research. Vol. V, issue 1.

Adura, B. K. (2008). The pronominal system of Kulere. Unpublished B.A. Project, Department of Languages and Linguistics, University of Jos, Nigeria.

Akmajian, et al. (1995). An Introduction to Language and Communication. Prentice-Hall of Indian Private Limited. New Delhi.

Al-Hassan, B. S. Y. (2011). Does Hausa have infixation? Studies of the Departmeent of African Languages and Cultures, No. 45, IISN 0860-4649. Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria.

Al-Hassan, B. S. Y. (2011). Tranxfixation in Hausa: a hypothetical analysis. Studies of the Departmeent of African Languages and Cultures, No. 45, IISN 0860-4649. Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria.

Ames, C.G. (1934). Gazetteer of the Plateau province. Nigeria, Jos.

Andrew, G. (2005). A Case study of the Noun Phrase (NP) word order in Mupun language. Unpublished B.A. Project, Department of Languages and Linguistics, University of Jos, Nigeria.

Bauer, L. (1983). English word-formation: Cambridge university press.

Bauer, L. (1988). Introducing linguistics morphology. Edinburg, Endinburg University Press.

Blench, R. (2007). Endangered languages in West Africa. Language diversity endangered, 181, 140.

Blench, R. M. (1998). The status of the languages of Central Nigeria. In Brenzinger, M. (ed.) Endangered Languages in Africa. 187-206. Koln: Koppe Verlag.

Blench, R. M., & Dendo, M. (2006). The Kadu languages and their affiliation: between Nilo-Saharan, Niger-Congo and Afro-Asiatic. Insights into Nilo-Saharan Language, History and Culture, 101-127.

Bola, O. O. (2005). The noun-phrase structure of Yoruba language. Unpublished B.A. Project, Department of Languages and Linguistics, University of Jos, Nigeria.

Braun, V. Clarke, V. (2006). Using thematic analysis in Psychology. Qualitative Research in Psychology, 3 (2). Pp. 77-101. ISSN 1478-0887. University of the West of England.

Brenzinger, M. (1998). Endangered languages in Africa: R. Koppe.

Childs, G. T. (2003). An introduction to African languages: John Benjamins Publishing.

Connell, B. (1998). Moribund languages of the Nigeria-Cameroon borderland. Endangered Languages in Africa. Cologne: Rudiger Koppe Verlag, 207-225.

Corris, M., Manning, C., Poetsch, S., & Simpson, J. (1999). Dictionaries and endangered languages.

Crystal, D. (1991). A dictionary of linguistics and phonetics (3rd Edition) United Kingdom: Blackwell Publishers.

David. E. (1994). Elements of grammar and mechanics of the english language, Calabar: Salesprint Publishers.

Diamond, S. (1960). Anaguta cosmography: The linguistics and Behavioural implications. Anthropological linguistics, 31-38.

Diamond, S. (1967). ‘Suburban Primitives’ in Julien Steward (ed). Three African Tribes in Transition. Chicago.

Durueke, V. (2012). Reduplication in Tiv language. Unpublished B.A. Project, Department of Languages and Linguistics, University of Jos, Nigeria.

Essien, O. (1990a). A grammar of the Ibibio language. Ibadan: University Press.

Essien, O. (2010). Vital aspect of linguistics. Port-Harcourt: M & J Grand Orbit Communication Ltd.

Felicia, B. T. (2012). An introduction to the morphology of Nouns in Rom languages. Unpublished B.A. Project, Department of Languages and Linguistics, University of Jos, Nigeria.

Finegan, E. (2012). Language: Its structure and use. Sixth edition, international edition. Wadsworth, Cengage learning.

Fomwul, C. N. (2011). An Introduction to Jakattoe morphology. Unpublished B.A. Project, Department of Languages and Linguistics, University of Jos, Nigeria.

Giwa, A. O. (2011). Introduction to the morphological processes of Alago (a Case Study of Doma Dialect). Unpublished B.A. Project, Department of Languages and Linguistics, University of Jos, Nigeria.

Gleason, H. A. (1961) an Introduction to descriptive linguistics. Holt Reinchart and Winston Inc, New York.

Greenberg, J. H. (1963). The languages of Africa. The Hague: Mouton, Bloomington, Indian University Press.

Gunn, H.D. (1953). People of the Plateau area of Northern Nigeria (London).

Hartmann, R. R. K. and Stork, F. C. (1972). Dictionary of language and linguistics. Applied Science Publishers Ltd. Ripple Road, England.

Heine, B., & Nurse, D. (2000). Nilo-Saharan. African languages: An introduction: Cambridge University Press.

Hockectt, C. F. (1959). A course in modern linguistics. New York: The Macmillan Company.

Jungraithmayr, H. (1963). Die sprache der sura (Maghavul) in Nordnigerien. Auǖ. 45, 95-123.

Kastenholz, R. (1998). Language shift and language death among Mande Blacksmiths a Leatherworkers in the diaspora. In Brenzinger (ed.) 253-266.

Katamba, F. (1993) Morphology. New York: Palgrave Houndmills, Basingstoke. Hampsshire.

Kiparsky, P. (1983). Word-formation and the lexicon. Paper presented at the Proceedings of the 1982 mid-America Linguistics Conference.

Lyons, J. (1970). New horizon in linguistics. New York: Harmond Sworth Penguin.

Lyons, J. (1977). Semantics. Vol. 1 & 2. Cambridge University Press.

Matthews, P. H. (1974). Morphology: An Introduction to the Theory of Word Structure. New York: Cambridge University Press.

Matthews, P. H. (1993). Morphology. Cambridge, Cambridge University Press.

Mele, M. (2005). The morphological processes in Kanuri. Unpublished B.A. Project, Department of Languages and Linguistics, University of Maiduguri, Nigeria.

Merchand, H. (1969). The categories and types of present day English word-formation. N.Edn Munchen.

Merriam, S.B. (1998). Qualitative research and case study applications in education. San Francissco: Jossey-Bass Publishers.

Morris and Alexander (1989). The New Encyclopaedia Britannica. Vol. 8 University of Chicago.

Muazu, M. A. (2009). Kilba morphological processes: A descriptive analysis. California Linguistic Notes, 34(2).

Ndimele, O. (1999). A first course on morphology and syntax. Port Harcourt: M & J Grand Orbit Communication.

Nkanga, P. C. (2012). A morphological analysis of the Structure of Ibibio Nouns. Unpublished B.A. Project, Department of Languages and Linguistics, University of Jos, Nigeria.

Nurhayati, Dwi Astuti Wahyu. (2016). Investigating Morphological Process of Payandra on Javanese Metaphor. JELTL (Journal of English Language Teaching and Linguistics), 1(3), 2016 doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.21462/jeltl.v1i3.34

Nyam, A. M. (1988). The Afizere people of Nigeria, Jos.

O'Grady, W. (1996). Language acquisition without universal grammar: a general nativist proposal for L2 learning. Second Language Research, 12(4), 374-397.

Okeke, C. O. (2008). History of linguistics and Communication. Enugu: Pascal Communication Ltd.

Parsons, F. W. (1955). Abstract nouns of sensory quality and their derivatives in Hausa, J. Lukas (ed.) Afrikanistische Students (Festchrift Westermann), pp. 373-404, Berlin.

Robin, R. H. (1967). General linguistics: an introductory survey, Heinemann Educational Books Ltd.

Rufa’I, A. (1979). Prinipal Resources of Lexeme Formation in Hausa. Harsunan Nijeriya IX: C.S.N.L., Bayero University, Kano.

Sale, P. D. (2012). An Inroductional Morpgology of the Mwaghavul Language. Unpublished B.A. Project, Department of Languages and Linguistics, University of Jos, Nigeria.

Sands, B. (2009). Africa's linguistic diversity. Language and Linguistics Compass,3(2),559580.

Sapir, E. (1963) Socio-cultural environment. Penguin Publisher London.

Shina’an, J. Z. (2011). A morphological study of Goemai nouns. Unpublished B.A. Project, Departnment of Languages and Linguistics, University of Jos, Nigeria.

Strang, B. M. H. (1968). Modern english structure. London: Edward Arnold Publishers Ltd.

Swadesh, M. (1955). Towards greater accuracy in lexicostatistic dating. International journal of American linguistics, 121-137.

Tomori, O. (1977). The Morphology and Syntax of present-day English: An introduction. Heiminann Educational Books Ltd. England.

Urue, E. (2000). Ibibio phonetics and phonology. Port Hartcourt: M & J Grand Orbit communication Limited and Emhai Press

Wurm, S. A. (1996). Atlas of the World’s languages in danger of disappearing. Canberra/Paris: Pacipic Linguistics/ UNESCO.

Yakubu, P. (2009). The morphological processes of Tarok personal Names. Unpublished B.A. Project, Department of Languages and Linguistics, University of Jos, Nigeria.

Yule, G. (2007). The Study of Language. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.




DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.21462/asiantefl.v2i1.26

Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.



Creative Commons License
ASIAN TEFL: Journal of Language Teaching and Applied Linguistics by http://www.asian-tefl.com is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.
Based on a work at http://www.asian-tefl.com.
View My Stats
Indexed and Abstracted by:

          


ASIAN TEFL: Journal of Language Teaching and Applied Linguistics

web: www.asian-tefl.com

email: asian.teflj@gmail.com

Publisher: Asosiasi Dosen Linguistik, Pendidikan Bahasa, dan Sastra di Indonesia (Lecturer Association of Linguistics, Language Teaching, and Literature Studies in Indonesia)

Address: Prodi Sastra Inggris, Universitas Dian Nuswantoro, Jl Imam Bonjol No. 207, Semarang